Drug Resistance To
Antibiotics Is Failing.
of drug options via doctors is short and
are pushing our immune system's to the
Every month more
and more drugs are failing to combat
And what is it with the latest
threat, the Zika Virus?
resistance is partially our own fault for
trusting in doctors with blind faith and
willingly allowing them to prescribe countless
poisonous drug cocktails, especially when we are
desperate for relief from pain. The doctors are
first and foremost to blame as they have long
placed profit before honesty and knowledge,
scribbling out prescriptions as fast as we ask
article below explains what is happening today
and hopefully will prevent so many people
reaching for quick fixes with toxic synthetic
drugs. Our immune systems are shot. Detox and
radical changes in lifestyle and thinking must
now take place if we are to remain healthy and
not succumb to the never ending strains of new
bacteria and viruses that are bombarding
The article below was written in 2008 but is
just as relevant today, and even more so. Turn
on the TV in the USA and watch countless ads
pushing drugs for everything under the sun. It
will not stop until people stop believing there
is a magic pill for everything that ails them
and never mind the deadly side effects.
is the latest 'threat to humanity"? Oh yes, the
Zika Virus, now suddenly appearing in Western
generating a new income for big pharma.
'Scientists conducting routine surveillance for
yellow fever in the Zika forest of Uganda
isolate the Zika virus in samples taken from a
captive, sentinel rhesus monkey.' - www.who.int/bulletin/online_first/16-171082/en/
what ... a monkey in Africa again, wasn't
that how AIDS was first discovered?
Fast forward 68 years, to
2015: 'The Pan American Health
Organization and WHO issue an alert to the
association of Zika virus infection with
neurological syndrome and congenital
malformations in the Americas.' - www.who.int/bulletin/online_first/16-171082/en/
go ahead, pop some pills, get a vaccine and be
careful who you have sex with (it can be
transmitted sexually). Good luck if your
pregnant because the 'authorities' are
suggesting you abort the fetus. In some circles
this is known as 'population control', just
saying. And lets not overlook the deliberately
gene altered mosquitoes being created to combat
the Zika mosquitoes, and neighborhoods being
dusted with chemicals.
everything can be genetically altered or cloned
... animals, our food, viruses, bacteria, vaccines ...
and what else has been done that we don't yet
know about? Truth is, humanity is doomed unless
we wake up. Is it too late?
Bacteria race ahead of
Deadly infections increasingly able to
Sabin Russell - Sunday, January
busy microbiology lab in San Francisco, bad bugs
are brewing inside vials of human blood, or
sprouting inside petri dishes, all in
preparation for a battery of tests.These tests
will tell doctors at UCSF Medical Center which
kinds of bacteria are infecting their patients,
and which antibiotics have the best chance to
knock those infections down. With disturbing
regularity, the list of available options is
short, and it is getting shorter.
Jeff Brooks has been director of the UCSF lab
for 29 years, and has watched with a mixture of
fascination and dread how bacteria once tamed by
antibiotics evolve rapidly into forms that
practically no drug can treat. "These organisms
are very small," he said, "but they are still
smarter than we are."
the most alarming of these is MRSA, or
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a
bug that used to be confined to vulnerable
hospital patients, but now is infecting
otherwise healthy people in schools, gymnasiums
and the home. As MRSA continues its natural
evolution, even more drug-resistant strains are
emerging. The most aggressive of these is one
week, doctors at San Francisco General Hospital
reported that a variant of that strain, resistant
to six important antibiotics normally used
to treat staph, may be transmitted by sexual
contact and is spreading among gay men in San
Francisco, Boston, New York and Los Angeles.
the problem goes far beyond one bug and a
handful of drugs. Entire classes of mainstay
antibiotics are being threatened with
obsolescence, and bugs far more dangerous than
staph are evolving in ominous ways. "We are on
the verge of losing control of the situation,
particularly in the hospitals," said Dr. Chip
Chambers, chief of infectious disease at San
Francisco General Hospital.
The reasons for increasing
drug resistance are well known:
* Overuse of antibiotics,
which speeds the natural evolution of
bacteria, promoting new mutant strains
resistant to those drugs.
* Careless prescribing of antibiotics that
aren't effective for the malady in question,
such as a viral infection.
* Patient demand for antibiotics when they
* Heavy use of antibiotics in poultry and
livestock feed, which can breed resistance to
similar drugs for people.
* Germ strains that interbreed at hospitals,
where infection controls as simple as
hand-washing are lax.
this is happening while the supply of new antibiotics
from drug company laboratories is running
commercial production of penicillin began in the
1940s, antibiotics have been the miracle drugs
of modern medicine, suppressing infectious
diseases that have afflicted human beings for
thousands of years. But today, as a generation
of Baby Boomers begins to enter a phase of life
marked by the ailments of aging, we are running
out of miracles.
infectious disease doctors are saying that
the public at large do not realize
the grave implications of this trend.
just a few years, we could be seeing that most
of our microorganisms are resistant to most of
our antibiotics," said Dr. Jack Edwards, chief
of infectious diseases at Harbor-UCLA Medical
Brooks' microbiology laboratory, the
evolutionary struggle of bacteria versus
antibiotics is on display every day. He grabbed
a clear plastic dish that grew golden-hued MRSA
germs taken from a patient a few days earlier.
Inside were seven paper dots, each impregnated
with a different drug. If the antibiotic worked,
the dot had a clear ring around it - a zone
where no germs could grow. No ring meant the
drug had failed. This test was typical. Three
drugs worked, four had failed.
strategy for nearly 70 years has been to stay a
step ahead of resistance by developing new
antibiotics. In the past decade, however, major
drugmakers have been dropping out of the field.
The number of new antibiotics in development
has plummeted. During the five-year period
ended in 1987, the FDA licensed 16 novel
antibiotics. In the most recent five-year
period, only five were approved.
drugmakers, the economics are simple: An
antibiotic can cure an infection in a matter
of days. There is much more money in finding
drugs, that must be taken for a lifetime.
antibiotic research lagging, the bugs are
catching up, and infections are taking a
terrible toll. The federal Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention estimates that each year 99,000 Americans
die of various bacterial infections that they
pick up while hospitalized - more than double
the number killed every year in automobile
the 1.7 million hospital-acquired infections
that occur each year, studies show, 70
percent are resistant to at least one
antibiotic. Drug-resistant staph is
rapidly becoming a major public health menace.
Last fall, the CDC estimated that MRSA alone has
killed 19,000 Americans. Most of these patients
picked up the bug in the hospital, but it is now
spreading in urban and suburban neighborhoods
across the nation.
McQueary's struggle to survive:
is killing people. It almost killed me," said
Peg McQueary, whose life was upended when she
nicked her leg with a razor three years ago.
Within days, her leg was grotesquely swollen,
red from foot to knee. Her husband wheeled her
into a Kaiser medical office, where her doctor
took one look and rushed her to an isolation
room. She was placed on intravenous vancomycin,
a drug reserved for the most serious cases of
MRSA. Since that frightening week, the
42-year-old Roseville woman has spent much of
her life in and out of hospitals, and she's
learned just how difficult these infections can
be to treat. McQueary has burned through drug
after drug, but the staph keeps coming back.
She's been hooked up at her home to bags of
vancomycin and swallowed doses of linezolid,
clindamycin and a half a dozen other antibiotics
with barely pronounceable names and limited
of the newest antibiotics, intravenous
daptomycin - approved by the Food and Drug
Administration in 2003 - seems to work the best,
but it has not prevented recurrences. "It's just
a struggle to do everyday things," she said. "I
am ready to scream about it." Today, she
moderates a Web site, MRSA Resources Support
Forum, swapping stories with other sufferers.
"Giving them a place to vent is some sort of
healing for me," she said.
travails are becoming an all-too-familiar
American experience. As bacteria evolve new ways
to sidestep antibiotics, doctors treating
infections find themselves with a dwindling list
of options. Old-line drugs are losing their
punch, while the newer ones are both costly and
laden with side effects.
Joseph Guglielmo, chairman of the Department of
Clinical Pharmacy at UCSF, closely tracks the
effectiveness of dozens of antibiotics against
different infectious bacteria. Laminated
color-coded cards called antibiograms are
printed up for hospital physicians each year.
They chart the success rate of each antibiotic
against at least 12 major pathogens. These
charts show how antibiotics, like tires slowly
leaking air, are losing strength year by year.
head of the hospital pharmacy, Guglielmo
oversees a small warehouse at the medical center
that stores millions of dollars worth of
prescription drugs that are used every day to
treat patients there. Strolling down the aisles
that houses bins of antibiotics, he reached for
a bottle of imipenem, and cradled the little
vial in the palm of his hand. "This one is the
last line of defense," he said.
was approved by the FDA in 1985. A powerful
member of the carbapenem family - the latest in
a long line of penicillin-like drugs - it is
frequently used in hospitals today because it
can still defeat a wide variety of germs that
have outwitted the earlier-generation
antibiotics. But at a cost of about $60 a day,
and with a safety profile that includes risk of
seizure, it is a "Big Gun" drug that must be
used carefully. As soon as doctors discover that
a lesser antibiotic will work, they will stop
prescribing imipenem, like soldiers conserving
their last remaining stores of ammunition.
are signs of trouble.
has been the antibiotic of choice for doctors
treating Klebsiella, a vigorous microbe that
causes pneumonia in hospitalized patients. But
in June 2005, New York City doctors reported in
the journal Archives of Internal Medicine
outbreaks of imipenem-resistant Klebsiella.
Fifty-nine such cases were logged at just two
hospitals. The death rate among those whose
infections entered their bloodstreams was 47
percent. Last year, Israeli doctors
battled an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant
Klebsiella that has killed more than 400
antibiotic Cipro, approved by the Food and Drug
Administration in 1987, is familiar to millions
of Americans because it is widely prescribed for
pneumonia, urinary tract infections and sexually
transmitted diseases. It was the drug used to
treat victims of the anthrax mailings that
followed the Sept. 11 attacks.
most antibiotics, which originated from natural
toxins produced by bacteria, Cipro came from
tinkering with a chemical compound used to fight
malaria. The German drug giant Bayer patented
Cipro's active ingredient in 1983, and it
subsequently became the most widely sold
antibiotic in the world.
hospitals across the country, however,
clinicians have witnessed a remarkable drop-off
in the utility of Cipro against more commonly
encountered germs. Antibiograms from the UCSF
lab highlight the alarming erosion: As recently
as 1999, Cipro was effective against 95 percent
of specimens of E. coli - bacteria responsible
for the most common hospital-acquired infections
in the United States. By 2006, Cipro would work
against only 60 percent of samples tested.
bacterial evolution that has so quickly sapped
Cipro has also reduced the effectiveness of the
entire family of related antibiotics called
fluoroquinolones - drugs such as Levaquin,
Floxin, and Noroxin. "If there is ever a group
of drugs that has taken a beating, it is these,"
said UCSF pharmacy chief Guglielmo.
Acinetobacter - a bug responsible for rising
numbers of bloodstream and lung infections in
intensive care units, as well as among combat
casualties in Iraq - Cipro's effectiveness
fell from 80 percent in 1999 to 10 percent
just four years later. Cipro has also
lost ground against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a
common cause of pneumonia in hospitalized
patients. Nearly 80 percent of the bugs tested
were susceptible to Cipro in 1999. That fell to
65 percent by 2004.
UCSF, doctors carefully monitor the trends in
drug resistance and modify their prescribing
patterns accordingly. As a result, they have
been able to nudge some of these resistance
levels down. Cipro's effectiveness against
Acinetobacter crept up to 40 percent last year,
for example, but the overall trend remains
MRSA infections have been capturing headlines,
bugs such as Acinetobacter, Klebsiella and
Pseudomonas are keeping doctors awake at night.
They come from a class of pathogens called
Gram-negative bacteria, which typically have an
extra layer of microbial skin to ward off
antibiotics, and internal pumps that literally
drive out antibiotics that penetrate.
infections have always been difficult to treat,
and few new drugs are in development. Some
researchers believe that the pipeline for new
antibiotics is drying up because it is
simply getting more difficult to outwit the
bugs. "It may be that we've already found
all the good antibiotics," warned Chambers, San
Francisco General Hospital's infectious disease
chief. "If that is so, then we've really got to
be careful how we use the ones we have."
Hazen, senior scientist at Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratory and director of its ecology
program, is not at all surprised by the tenacity
of our bacterial foes. "We are talking about 3.5
billion years of evolution," he said. "They are
the dominant life on Earth."
have invaded virtually every ecological niche
on the planet. Human explorers of extreme
environments such as deep wells and mines are
still finding new bacterial species. "As
you go deeper into the subsurface, thousands and
thousands of feet, you find bacteria that have
been isolated for millions of years - and you
find multiple antibiotic resistance,"
Hazen said.In his view, when bacteria develop
resistance to modern antibiotics, they are
merely rolling out old tricks they mastered eons
ago in their struggle to live in harsh
environments in competition with similarly
industry economics are also a factor. "It takes
a hell of a lot of effort to find the next
really good drug," said Steven Projan, vice
president of New Jersey pharmaceutical giant
Wyeth Inc. The costs of bringing a new drug to
market are hotly debated. A Tufts University
study estimated $802 million; the consumer group
Public Citizen pegs it at $110 million. Either
way, the investment is huge.
1990, according to the Infectious Diseases
Society of America, half the major drugmakers
in Japan and the United States had cut back or
halted antibiotic research. Since 2000, some
of the biggest names in pharmaceutical
development - Roche, Bristol-Myers Squibb,
Abbott Laboratories, Eli Lilly, Aventis and
Procter & Gamble - had joined the exodus.
common measures used to gauge the profit
potential of new drugs, antibiotics fall way
behind, Projan explained. For every $100 million
that a new antibiotic might yield, after
projected revenue and expenses are tallied, a
new cancer drug will generate $300 million. A
new drug for arthritis, by this same analysis,
brings in $1.1 billion. Investors have been
placing their bets accordingly.
2002, Wyeth had sharply curtailed its own
antibiotic drug discovery programs. "We tried to
get out of the field, but one of the reasons we
did not get out altogether is we feel we have a
public responsibility to fund more research,"
decision to keep some antibiotic research alive
eventually paid off. In June 2005, the FDA
licensed Tygacil, an intravenous antibiotic for
complicated skin diseases such as drug-resistant
staph infection. Only one new antibiotic for
oral or intravenous use has won FDA approval
Pointing a finger at doctors.
waning of antibiotics in the arsenal of modern
medicine has been going on for so long that some
doctors fear a kind of complacency has set in.
Increasingly, the medical profession is pointing
a finger at itself.
have behaved very badly," said Dr. Louis Rice, a
Harvard-educated, Columbia-trained specialist in
infectious diseases. "We have made a lot of
stupid choices." His words brought a nervous
silence to thousands of his colleagues, as he
delivered a keynote speech in 2006 for the
American Society for Microbiology's annual
conference in San Francisco.
a professor at Cleveland's Case Western Reserve
University, said doctors
and drug companies alike are responsible for
breeding resistance by "the indiscriminate
dumping of antibiotics into our human
germs contaminate the bedrails, the catheter
lines, the blood pressure cuffs and even the
unwashed hands of doctors, nurses and orderlies.
The germs keep evolving, swapping
drug-resistance traits with other microbes. He
likened American intensive-care units - the
high-tech enclaves where the most seriously ill
patients are treated - to "toxic waste dumps."
companies, he said, have a responsibility to
refill the nation's depleted medicine chest. He
suggested that a tax - similar to a Superfund
tax placed on polluters to clean up toxic waste
sites - be imposed on companies that have
dropped antibiotic research. It would support
drugmakers that are still in the game. "Your
products that you've made billions and
billions and billions and billions of dollars
on have created this problem, and you can't
just walk away," he said.
has stressed that the existing arsenal of
antibiotics should be used wisely, and that
often means sparingly. During a half century of
antibiotic use, he said, there is scant research on
how short a course of drugs is actually needed
to cure a patient. Instead, doctors routinely
prescribe a week to 10-day course of drugs
recommended by manufacturers. If patients are
taking antibiotics after their infections are
truly gone, they are creating conditions that
breed resistance. Indeed, a Dutch study showed
that one kind of pneumonia can be treated just
as successfully with three days of amoxicillin
as with the traditional eight.
drug companies cannot be expected to spend money
on research that could trim sales of their
products, federally funded agencies such as the
National Institutes of Health should do the job,
Rice said in a recent interview.
also took his own specialty to task for failing
to protect the most important weapons its
arsenal. Infectious disease experts at hospitals
must find the "backbone" to stop other
doctors from prescribing antibiotics
unnecessarily, Rice said. He argued they
should assert their authority to control
antibiotic usage, just as cancer specialists
have a say in which chemotherapy drugs are
prescribed by surgeons. And all health care
professionals, he added, "have to wash their
damn hands." -
So how do
we stay healthy?
Oxygen - Elimination of Toxins
Four machines for
Ancon Chi Machine - Hothouse
Reflexology - E-Power
toxins has never been as important
as it is today,
order to combat what ever happens
Understand it so
as to eliminate it.